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Surfing and “indigenous” are terms you seldom hear used in the same sentence, especially in the context of the continental United States. When we talk about Hawaii surfers understand about Native Hawaiians, who are usually referred to by the euphemism “locals.” Any surfer who’s ever been there is painfully aware of the tension between “locals” and haoles, and those with even the most cursory of historical knowledge know that the tension stems from a history of American imperialism against the independent nation of Hawaii.

Those with more advanced knowledge understand the reasons why the tension persists. People don’t respond well to military aggression, especially when the historical fallout is the inability to live in your own homelands or to be adequately housed and fed due to unending foreign invasion. To say nothing about the history of forced assimilation, land theft, and environmental degradation caused by a century and a half of economic imperialism from big agriculture, tourism, and militarism.

There is a name for unending invasion: settler colonialism. Settler colonialism happens when invaders engage in wholesale population transfer from the original country or empire, forcibly displacing indigenous populations over a period of decades or centuries. If you are not of unambiguous indigenous ancestry (that is, you have more than a family rumor of an Indian princess great-grandmother), you are a settler no matter how long ago your ancestors came. One cannot become indigenous. Like plants, you are either indigenous or you are an invasive species, choking out indigenous life.

Everything in the U.S.—every social institution, every ideology, everything that can be owned—is a result of settler invasion and conversely, indigenous erasure. American surf culture, with its roots in fin de siècle California can exist only because of the complexity of multiple colonialisms: Spanish, Mexican, and American.

Of the three, American colonialism has been the most destructive to California Indians. Under the Spanish mission system massive Indian depopulation and land loss occurred due to foreign diseases and brutal enslavement. The Mexicans attempted half-heartedly and ultimately unsuccessfully to restore Indians to their lands after breaking up the missions.

Under the Americans, an official policy of Indian extermination from the first days of California statehood proceeded unabated for decades, fueled in the long run not by gold fever, but by the greed for land. Enter George Freeth, 1907. Freeth is widely credited with bringing surfing to California from Hawaii, and thus with the birthing of surf culture. Freeth himself was an indigenous Hawaiian. Surf historians have referred to him variously as Hawaiian, hapa haole, and simply haole by virtue of the fact that he was racially mixed, with more white ancestry than Hawaiian.

Settlers are programmed to eliminate indigenous peoples by a wide variety of techniques. One technique is through equating blood with culture where less indigenous “blood” means less cultural identity, regardless of upbringing and cultural competency. Yet based on Hawaiian genealogy and kinship systems (called moʻokūʻauhau), one either is or isn’t Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiian). In turn-of-the-century Hawaii George Freeth would have been considered by Native Hawaiians as simply Hawaiian. But I digress.

By the time George arrived in California the not-yet-ended genocide of California Indians had resulted in a 90% population decrease in under just half a century of American rule, with the 1900 census counting only 15,000 Indians left. There were countless others, however, who had assumed other ethnic identities to avoid being murdered or having their children kidnapped and hauled off to government boarding schools. But they were still there, watching silently. Chumash, Tongva, and Acjachemen survivors stood by helplessly and watched as their coastal Southern California lands were being hocked to the white masses by land pimps like Henry Huntington and Abbot Kinney. Kinney employed George Freeth to give surfing demonstrations to help plant the seeds of beach culture. This would increase land sales by drawing people away from the inland areas to wide open coastal lands.

What are now the havens of a century-old surf culture—a drop in the bucket of time—were for millennia indigenous places. San Clemente was Panhe. Newport Beach was Kenyaanga. Redondo Beach was Engvangna. Malibu was Humaliwu. One of the most effective techniques of settler erasure of the indigenous is the remapping and renaming of indigenous places.

Contrary to colonial history-telling, history does not start when settlers arrive. The next time you get pissed off when someone you don’t know shows up to “your” neighborhood surf break try remembering that the only reason you are there is because a whole lot of indigenous people before you were murdered and cheated for their land.

And that those who survived are still there being denied access to their ancestral places due to the maintenance of settler erasure and socioeconomic inequality brought on by capitalism.
And that 90% of their sacred places—their village and burial sites—are gone, obliterated because development is God in Southern California. And surfing has everything to do with it.
Colonialism is the condition of possibility for American surf culture in Hawaii and California. As surfers increase their social awareness and historical knowledge let us learn from the past so we don’t trample all over indigenous cultures in other countries with our colonial expectations. We can do better.



  • Sorry for being pedantic, but out here “local” refers to someone Hawaii born and bred, regardless of race. “Hawaiian” refers to actual native Hawaiians. Then you’ve got guys like me, haole or transplant or whatever.

    Interracial tension is largely over exaggerated. The original Hawaiians were a welcoming people, there hasn’t been much change. The vast majority of anti-haole sentiment exists only in the minds of the offended.

    • freerider

      The word ‘Kamaaina’ may fit for you–while denoting people born in Hawaii it is also used for people who have lived in Hawaii for a long time…

      • A Honda

        the word “kama’aina’ has been overused for resident discounts. Everyone always asks for the Kama’aina rate, even if they just moved here.

        • freerider

          ok–
          Rorys a Haole–that fits toomk,nn hgjhj

        • The best Kama’aina discount is Amazon Prime.

    • A Honda

      I agree. Respect and a smile goes a long way.

  • Dharma Bum

    Dina – you mention the Panhe of San Clemente region. A bit off topic but considering the opposition to the Toll Road Extension and the Save Trestles campaign…

    Do you think it was somewhat disingenuous/hypocritical for the Save Trestles campaign (along with partner NGOs and non-profits) to use the Panhe as a basis to reject the TCA proposal?

    I mean, was it not “settler colonialism” which crowded out and exploited the resources of the Panhe – both natural and human – and now occupies that formerly indigenous sacred space?

    Don’t you think it seems a bit sordid to ask the Coastal Commission to reject the TCA’s proposal, based in large part, to the lack of due process and injustice against Panhe’s as a Traditional Cultural Property, as recommended by the State Historic Preservation Office?

    Aren’t we then supporting indigenous displacement when we support surfing?

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  • Jack Work

    An honest appraisal is so rare.

  • freerider

    While I’m not an expert here–and I’ve always totally respected the American Indians and their way of life–I’m not sure how “surfing has everything to do with it”. California would have been colonized regardless of surfing–and the vast majority of people living in coastal areas actually don’t surf. That being said–what happened to the American Indians is a crime and heartbreaking and borders on Genocide. If anyone wants to really check it out further–they should read–“Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee”–(it should be required reading for anyone living in the U.S.)–it will change your whole perspective of the settlement of the West and the U.S. and probably might even make you a different person–with a different world view…

    • Mr.Paynter

      I don’t want to be pedantic, but according to the definition, it was genocide.

      (the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular nation or ethnic group.)

      The only grey area is what constitutes a ‘large’ group of people.

    • Dina Gilio-Whitaker

      Surfing/surf culture has everything to do with the development of southern California, which is built on settler displacement of indigenous peoples. Like all of American society, surfing benefits from the genocide and displacement of indigenous peoples. For more info on how surfing influenced the rise of socal beach culture see “The World in the Curl:An Unconventional History of Surfing” by Westwick and Neushul. Excellent surf history, but completely misses the larger historical context of colonialism.

      • freerider

        Will totally agree with you that southern California was built on settler displacement of indigenous people–but they were ‘not’ being displaced at that time so people could surf– native Americans were being displaced by those greedy for land and wealth–not by surfers. Surfers were frowned upon and looked down on as a bunch of bums and losers (the good ole days) up till what–the 1980s. How a bunch of so called losers had everything to do with it–I still don’t quite understand. ,.Most surfer back then didn’t want wealth or land–they just wanted to surf. But I do agree with you on just about everything else–and still think everyone should read “Bury My Hear at Wounded Knee”..

        • Dina Gilio-Whitaker

          The key term here is “benefitted.” I’m not claiming that surfers displaced Indians in order to surf. But surf culture as we know it cannot exist without that history of displacement. And I think we CAN talk about a surf culture prior to 1950. San Onofre (i.e. Panhe), for example, was “discovered” by surfers in the 1930’s and by the 1940’s was a pretty populated place with surfers who would actually live there for weeks at a time during the summer just to surf. They lived off the ocean and grew the seed planted by George Freeth decades earlier. We might even call it the micro-culture that grew into what it is today.

          • freerider

            “Everything in the U.S.—every social institution, every ideology, everything that can be owned—is a result of settler invasion and conversely, indigenous erasure”. OK– kind of getting your point–but of all the sub cultures-birthed from this–the “early” surf sub-culture–surfers”–seemed to blend in with the native American lifestyle most–living at the beach and living off the ocean–and not wanting land ownership…

          • Dina Gilio-Whitaker

            Yes, that’s actually a whole other conversation about settler nativism, settler replacement narratives, and cultural appropriation. I’m writing a book that takes up these topics relative to surf culture.

          • freerider

            Good points–Thanks for your reply..

          • freerider

            And maybe–maybe–‘surfing’ really hasn’t benefited that much–if you look at the state of Cali surfing today–crowds–pollution–everyone wearing Quick–hurl–etc tees–competition–websites like this making surfers feel inferior cause they can’t surf like the current pro these guys are fawning over this week.– Maybe surfing would have ‘really benefited’ and stayed on a more soulful track–if native Americans had been given equal rights. I’m pretty sure everyone would have.

  • Tony Gowen

    Rory’s so called pedant remarks ring true especially when a bigger time picture is considered and we realize it’s a natural process humanity lives by that’s shared by all living things, although it seems our growing awareness and continued march forward to the information age allows us to choose a recent 1000 yr period and categorize it as a crime. Nature is a cruel reality.

  • Tommy

    Interesting take on the history of the region from an indigenous perspective. I work with an American Indian tribe in San Diego county, where there are 18 federally recognized tribal nations and I can say I try my best to re-introduce our youth to the coastal lands that were a significant part of our migration patterns. If you have ever attended a fiesta or learned of the bird songs then water and the rivers in the area are an important part of our culture. Too much to cover in one comment but it is refreshing and encouraging to see surfing viewed through an indigenous lens. Thank you Dina. It would be great to have you come meet our youth if you are interested.

    • Dina Gilio-Whitaker

      I also work with Native youth here in San Clemente and I’d be interested in talking to you more about working with your youth. Find me on facebook 🙂

  • sandra mora

    Hi! It is terrible.. What happened with the Indigenous cultures and their land. Its heartbraking. Really it is. And I feel your pain. Sad From: Puerto Rico

  • Albee Doh

    Some pretty glaring omissions here.

    Brutality is grotesque no matter who is wielding it. And virtually every society in history has wielded it (and most still do).

    Look at what the Maori did to the Moriori.

    Look at the cannibalism that still exits in Papua New Guinea.

    Look at what the Tahitians who came to Hawaii did to the Marquesans who arrived ahead of them.

    And look at what Kam I did to his own people – with guns and canons he bought from Westerners – under the pretense of “unification.”

    As for Europeans, look at how the British treated the Irish. And look at the millennia of warfare that raged all over Europe.

    Many Native Americans themselves chose sides with whatever colonizing European nation they felt best supported their own agendas.

    The Iroquois Nation was not reflective of all NA’s, many of whom fought one another very brutally.

    Europeans were killing each other for centuries, as were Asians, Africans, Pacific Islanders, and very nearly every one else.

    Most of the Muslims killed in this world are killed by other Muslims, despite what Ben Affleck would have everyone believe.

    As long as we keep trying to convince us that brutality is a racial issue this brutality will never cease.

    Articles like these suffer from a raging case of confirmation bias. While the information provided is not itself deceptive or inaccurate it makes so many glaring omissions and tells such a narrow side of the tale that it is ultimately dishonest. In telling the truth you have to tell all of it lest your truth be itself a deception.

    And as horrible as SOME US Americans have been to others the fact remains that no other major power in history has crated as many agencies – both governmental and non-profit – to help promote indigenous peoples and those of non-European ancestry as the US.

    But this is all ultimately moot. Humans are ravaging this planet’s resources at a rate that is totally unsustainable. When resources start to become really, really scarce (which isn’t very far off) we will all start to massacre one another on a level never seen before in human history. Part of this process will see us taking sides and once again doing so along racial and ethnic lines, real and/or perceived.

    We’re a pathetically disappointing animal, one that has all the ability and intelligence in the world to put aside the BS and work together for the greater good of all mankind. But we would rather waste time pointing fingers in vain attempts to assess who deserves more blame than the other.

    • freerider

      “Why is it “okay” for people of the same ethnicity to massacre one another but somehow much worse if outsiders do it”?–Well–to try and answer your question–from my point of view–when a group of people (outsiders) with advanced and far superior weapons–and superior forces–massacres others–(and breaks promise after promise)–it takes things to a whole nother level of evil…

      • Albee Doh

        Then pretty much every culture and society in history is guilty of evil, Hawaiians and many Native American tribes included.

        The same could be said of most animal species as well.

        • freerider

          That is all on a level field–like i said the invaders had far superior weapons and forces..

          • Albee Doh

            This same drama is played out among virtually every species. As much as I hate it this is part of not just human nature but all of nature. Sure, the effects are horrific and devastating but the constant fight to reaffirm the same old divisions will not be beneficial. The surest path to peace is not to further isolate ourselves along ethnically defined boundaries.

            The data is irrefutable: the best thing for our species is to intermingle and procreate via ethnic mixing. Genetic diversity cannot be achieved by trying to isolate ourselves genetically/ethnically.

          • Albee Doh

            Same was true of Kam I when he went on an inter-island killing spree under the pretense of “unification.”

            Same has always been true of all indigenous cultures that actively engaged in warfare, which is most of them.

        • freerider

          We are not animals though–we are ‘human beings’ bestowed with the knowledge of right and wrong. And yes– all are guilty of evil–all have sinned.

          • freerider

            It seems though most of your examples were on a level playing field–equal weapons and forces–while the American Indians basically had no chance whatsoever in the long run. Maybe because so much of this is recent history and has never really been addressed correctly and also because of all of the ‘broken promises’. Have you read “Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee”?

          • Albee Doh

            Nature has never, ever cared about leveling the playing field.

            Nature’s only message to life has been this: adapt or perish.

            Humans appear to adopting the latter.

          • Albee Doh

            No, we are animals. Soulless, opportunistic, selfish animals.

    • Dina Gilio-Whitaker

      This is the same old tired argument settlers use to justify European/American aggression. Since humans have been warring against each other for all of history it somehow excuses the most recent predations of Europeans (recent as in last 500 years). Indigenous peoples are expected to “get over it” because genocide and land theft are “human nature”. In the US its done under the pretense of democracy. The US has never officially admitted to genocide, but they have admitted extreme wrongdoing (official apologies issued to Hawaiians in 1993 and to American Indians in 2009), none of which were followed by any kind of action.

      And the fact is that Indigenous peoples of Turtle Island did not practice the type of warfare that the Europeans did, which was far bloodier, far more destructive. As a rule the tribes didn’t wipe each other out the way Europeans did to each other and to the indigenous people here. This was well known to the colonists, and exploited. See “An Indigenous Peoples History of the United States” by Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz for a detailed account of warfare practices.

      Native Americans chose sides because the Europeans exploited historical enmities to their advantage to gain access to territories. Another well-known, well documented fact.

      You argument is half-baked at best. My article is based on solid scholarship and is all historically verifiable. Tell you what…..why don’t you write your own article to counter it, with solid citations to back it up, and we’ll talk about it again?

      • coldgreenwaves

        What action are you referencing that was absent in in 2009?

        • Dina Gilio-Whitaker

          Apologies delivered without attempts, for example, to return stolen lands. Other actions could include abandoning legal doctrines that keep indigenous peoples unconsentingly subjected to colonial law (like the doctrine of discovery), or moves to support the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in meaningful ways that supports indigenous self-determination beyond domestic law. In the case of Hawaii, the apology resolution acknowledged the willingness to create a “Native Hawaiian governing body” but all that means is legally turning Hawaiians into Native Americans, not recognizing the legal reality of Hawaii as a nation under illegal military occupation. All these apologies do in effect is reinforce a “kinder, gentler” relationship of domination.

          • coldgreenwaves

            Thank you for your response. I appreciate the clarification. Although I agree with you for the most part I would like you to consider that your position promotes a false dialectic. Namely that indigenous people’s rights should be upheld rather than all people’s rights. Please allow me to clarify before you become upset. If our stated his-story is correct then it is very easy to see this as a European vs. native conflict but do the average decendents of early European migrants to North America actually contribute to what you feel is a suboptimal recompense for victim hood? Truth is we are all disadvantaged by the commerce lie we are forced to live in. In the case of North America and the negative effects of this inauthentic hamster wheel “life” onto the land I doubt we disagree at all. I guess my point is that we are all in the same boat and we should find common ground and restore some sanity to the way of life we consider normal. From my perspective I envy the land set aside for you to return to a life apart even if you feel it’s inadequate. A chance to live authentically and naturally if you choose to do so. My people are detached from their ancestors without a homeland as well. Most are living in the lie that the aforementioned hamster wheel is their creation and that they are in fact terrible for inflicting it upon distant lands. Truth is the psychopaths that engineer the accepted norms are the real issue. They are very few and it is pretty unlikely that you would even encounter them in day to day American life. Thanks again for the reply and all the best to you.

          • Dina Gilio-Whitaker

            I agree that at this point it is the existence of the entire human race that is at stake and that it is a systemic problem, i.e. as you imply, a commerce-driven world that depends on endless exploitation, framed as “growth.” It is insanity to think that the human race can continue to “grow” within a capitalist framework on a planet with finite resources. Indigenous peoples broadly speaking, all over the world are recognized for their ability to live sustainably. Are there examples that contradict this? Yes, for sure. But overall Indigenous peoples have different relationships to land that are based on respect, reciprocity, and responsibility, not greedy exploitation driven by a technology-intensive ideology. this is beginning to be recognized at the highest levels of some governments. Canada’s new Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, for example, just hired an indigenous woman as his Minister of Justice and Atty. Gen., and has said that he will look to aboriginal people to help develop climate change policy in Canada. he brought this stance with him to the current climate talks in France. how this actually plays out remains to be seen, but it is a 180 from the Harper regime who were on a massive collision course with the environment.

            And from an American Indian perspective, we are only a little more than a century out from near eradication. Our numbers are recovering but we are struggling to retain our languages and our cultural distinctiveness. Humans are no different than the natural world, in that like the biological world healthy human societies need diversity. what little amount of lands have been retained are In many places threatened by careless development in the interest of economics. Many tribal governments have unfortunately drunk the Kool-Aid of capitalism in an effort to survive in the dominant culture.

            These are all sound very heady, complex conversations and we cannot address them adequately in this kind of forum. And clearly there are irreconcilable viewpoints, as evidenced here. Native people have always been seen in this country as inferior and in need of “civilizing” but from an indigenous standpoint we weren’t the uncivilized ones. personally, I think we are witnessing civilization collapse. I think the work of Joseph Tainter pretty much spells it out. Google on it and check it out.

      • Albee Doh

        I could just as easily say that your response is the same old tired argument bleeding hearts use to gloss over the atrocities of one culture because the atrocities of another were simply larger in scale.

        Your arguments are cherry picked to support a confirmation bias, this is abundantly clear.

        The rest was simply you putting words in my mouth, based solely on your prejudicially fueled speculations about who I am and what I know, in a predictable personal attack intended to paint me as some kind of right-wing zealot.

        For the record, I have Cherokee blood and come from a very ethnically diverse family that includes East Indian, Hawaiian, Native American, and Asian genealogies.

        Nowhere did I justify the cruelty but neither am I willing to overlook the grotesque behavior of other societies simply because they were behind the technological curve. To do so is to perpetuate a deception.

        Write an article on the Maori and what they did to the Moriori.

        Write an article detailing the the constant waring between the various Hawaiian tribal colonies.

        Write an article on the Tamil Tigers.

        You clearly have no interest in providing a comprehensive account of ALL genocidal acts throughout history by all peoples. It is abundantly clear that your only interest is to paint one specific region as wholly and singly accountable for the “fall of man.” And THAT is racist.

        • Dina Gilio-Whitaker

          It’s not my project to provide a comprehensive account of all genocidal wars. Yes, my research interests are Indigenous peoples and colonialism. Nowhere have I talked about the West being responsible for the “fall of man.” Your words, not mine. The accusation that I’m racist for it is pretty extreme, but hey you can think what you want. It doesn’t change the history or the vast documentation that has led to the international recognition of colonial aggression, even at the level of the United Nations. Clearly that little bit of probably mythological Cherokee ancestry doesn’t influence your ill-informed opinions.

          • Albee Doh

            The UN, as valuable as they may be, has a history of making token gestures. Consider the nations represented there. How many are free of guilt?

            You definitely strongly imply that Western Europe is more or less solely responsible for the types of atrocities that accompany colonialism, which is just another term used to repackage migration. Humans have always been a migratory species. Native Americans originated elsewhere. As most accounts have proven, when one migratory group encounter those that showed up before them it rarely goes seamlessly well.

            You did bring up Hawaii and Hawaiians but you failed to adequately detail pre-colonial Hawaiian brutality, which was rampant and often very cruel.

            Indigenous people everywhere have been wronged by colonial expansion. I’m not and have never disputed that. But your approach to the issue only serves to further entrench people in their animosity and ethnocentrism, not help us to take a more sobering look at the bigger picture so that we can move forward together as a species, not only as separate and distinct groups (which is now more or less impossible given all the ethnic mixing, which, as it turns out, is better for the species anyway).

            Indigenous peoples definitely deserve to be represented and to have the same access to freedoms and resources enjoyed by others. However, attempting to resurrect and restore monarchies (like the Sovereignty Movement in Hawaii is dedicated to) and other long-gone indigenous governmental structures will do more to reinforce divisions than erase them.

            I enjoy knowing the origins of names and places but it would be a monumental waste of resources to start changing all the names of cities, towns, and streets. Those resources would be far better served elsewhere.

            You are certainly correct that indigenous peoples should be heard and integrated as equals in society. I completely support this. I do not think simply giving lands back to people will accomplish this. From what I’ve seen all across the country it does not help Native Americans to do anything that further isolates them from the rest of US society and culture. Reservations and anything like them are a bad idea. They simply remove people from society and reinforce their isolation. Native Americans should be joining everyone else on the same streets, in the same cafés and restaurants, in the same stores, on the same beaches. We need to be sharing these spaces together.

          • Dina Gilio-Whitaker

            Assimilation has long proven to be a failed policy for American Indians. Far more than islands of isolation or prison, reservations are homelands for Indian people. Indian people are tied to their lands in ways settlers aren’t, and can’t even understand, as reflected by your comments. Land/place is central to their identities, spirituality, and well being. Indians have always argued for what legal scholar Robert Williams called a “degree of measured separatism”, or what Vine Deloria called a “national leave us alone policy.” Never equality. Indians are more than just an ethnic minority deserving of “equality” because of their pre-constitutional inherent sovereignty. If you knew anything about American Indians or even your own supposed Cherokee heritage, you’d know this. This is confirmed in federal Indian law, as flawed as it is. Anyway, we could probably debate this stuff forever, and not see eye to eye. It’s fine. You don’t have to like what I write.

          • Albee Doh

            You’re screaming into a hurricane, blaming the wind for its source.

            I don’t agree with how any of this has played out but neither do I waste time clinging to false hopes and unrealistic expectations. You are petitioning for a return to something that will never come to pass.

            While I absolutely support efforts to preserve and promote the legacies of all peoples as part of the greater tale of all humanity – good and bad – I do not support any form of separatism. You are correct that assimilation was and is a failed policy – but that was not what I was tilting at. Native Americans would benefit both themselves and the rest of America if they were given the resources necessary to fully integrate into US society, being allowed to retain their unique identifying characteristics as well as share them with the rest of the nation in the context of the broader cultural tapestry. Native Americans should be free to represent themselves honestly and openly in US society. This is the only way the rest of the nation will ever be able to see them for what they – and you – are: human.

            As for nature (and “the land”), it is an immensely and cruelly indifferent mechanism. It has no capacity for care or concern for its creations. We need it, it does not need us.

  • Dharma Bum

    Thanks for reply Dina – much appreciated. Yes, a little social awareness can go a long way.

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